Network Equipment

A Guide to Network Equipment

To the home user there is a multitude of networking equipment on sale. The naming and specifications of these devices can be confusing to the novice. The following guide is designed to cut through all the jargon and explain the terms, names and specifications making it easier to make the correct decisions when setting up a home or small office network.

What is a Network?
A network usually consists of multiple computer devices which can communicate with each other enabling the sharing of information or data between them. With today’s technical advances networks are not limited to computers and laptops as they have extended to televisions, stereo equipment and even mobile devices such as phones and tablet PCs.

Wired Networks
Before the advances in wireless technology networks would mainly be “wired”. This would involve various devices between computers that would allow cables to be plugged into the machines enabling communication. These cables would limit the movement of the devices and on home networks would be impractical as it would usually require the drilling of holes.

Wireless Networks
In the last few years wireless networking has improved and now operates at speeds that allow networking of equipment reliably and more easily than ever before.

Network Speed
Network speeds are important when deciding which way to go when building a network for the home or office. Wired networks currently run at three speeds. These are measured in Megabits Per Second, the current speeds are 10Mbps, 100Mbps and Gigabit which runs at 1000Mbps. 10Mbps is very outdated in today’s networks as it cannot really cope with the transfer of data required by today’s applications and file sizes. 100Mbps can still be acceptable as long as there is not too much multimedia requirements as these files are large and usually take up a lot of network bandwidth.

There are currently four wireless standards for use around the home or office, 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11n. The first two standards 802.11a and 802.11b are very slow and also very insecure to the point where they should not be used on networks at all. 802.11g operates at 54Mbps and is still useable on networks. It will work adequately when surfing the internet and handles the transfer of data at home or in the office. 802.11n is the latest standard to be introduced and can operate at speeds up to 100mbps. This is the standard that should be implemented if using wireless networks.

Network Equipment

Cables
Wired networks require special cables or network cables to function. The computer, laptop or network equipment has to have a network port to enable these cables to be connected to them. The port is called a RJ45 port. There are a couple of types of network cable that can connect network enabled devices to a wired network, these are CAT5, CAT5e and CAT6 cables. For the majority of uses the CAT5e should be used as this can handle all network speeds including Gigabit 1000Mbps speeds. Note that CAT5 does not support Gigabit networking.

Network Switches
A network switch is used to connect multiple computer devices using network cables. They usually have a number of RJ45 ports used to connect the devices to the switch. They can come in various sizes and have a differing amount of ports built-in. A network switch can have as little as four ports for home or small office use but they also can come with 8, 16, 32 and 48 ports, obviously the larger switches are usually found on larger business networks.

Some switches come with a management interface which can be accessed via a web browser allowing certain settings to be manipulated in the switch such as enabling and disabling ports. It will also allow segmenting of the network but this is not usually a requirement for home and small office networks.

Network Routers
As the name suggests, the role of the network router is to route traffic around a network. They take the data being transmitted around the network and analyse it and then send it to the required destination.

Typically a home router will interface with the various network equipment around the home and manage the passing of information between these devices and even the internet via the modem. Before the common application of modern routers, internet connection sharing between multiple devices was long winded and very unreliable. These days many ISPs (Internet Service Providers) supply a router as part of their installation or package.

A router may also have wireless technology built-in allowing the connection of wireless devices to the network. These wireless devices then have the ability to access and share resources on the network via the same router.

A typical home router will have four RJ45 ports, a port for connecting it to the internet and wireless capabilities allowing it to become the central networking device around the home.

Network Attached Storage
NAS or network attached storage was once only used for business to store data shared amongst devices on the network. There are now devices designed to do this for home use. The network attached storage is basically one or more hard disk drives contained in a box which interfaces with the home network using a cable. These can be connected to the router or switch. They have an interface that can be accessed by a web / internet browser allowing simple configuration and backing up etc. These devices are accessed by computers, laptops etc using built-in networking allowing browsing, copying of files to and from the network attached storage directly.

Media Players
These are some of the latest network devices that can be installed around the home. They can interface with the home television and even stereo equipment allowing movies and audio files to be played. Media players are put to good use in conjunction with network attached storage accessing media files and playing them around the home.

Network Cards and Adapters
These devices are used to connect a device to the network. They can be wireless or wired. A modern PC should come with these fitted by default. If a computer / laptop does not have network capabilities or does not have the required capabilities for the network to which it is connecting then an adapter can be purchased to enable the connection to be added.

Summary
There is a lot of varied network equipment that can be used around the home or office and hopefully this article has cleared up some of the confusion about the technologies available. If you are unsure of your requirements then a simple search will bring millions of results enabling research and advice from other users who have created their own network.

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What is Networking

What is Networking?

Quote: Power networking involves the development of a team of powerful, proactive referral partners capable of producing a steady flow of referrals for your business.

In this chapter:

o Examples of power networking

o Defining networking

o 7 Myths and truths about networking

Before we talk about networking, let’s take a look at some examples of the results that some have achieved by applying the principles of effective networking. The examples we cite are mostly from Local Business Network simply because these are the individuals with whom we have worked and whose stories we know. In most cases, you can replace LBN with the words “structured networking organization”.

We share these stories to help you understand how truly powerful networking can be for anyone who is willing to learn the principles of power networking and to apply them consistently. Many who do so achieve rewards totaling hundreds of thousands of dollars. For many, business from referral partners account for 25% to as much as 90% of their sales. We hope these examples will encourage you to read further and to consider seriously the principles we teach.

Website Design Firm Finds Structured Networking its Most Powerful Business Growth Tool

Steve Hyer started IGD Solutions, a website development firm, in 1999. In 2000, he joined Local Business Network, a structured business referral organization. Steve was not only new to business, but new to networking.

For the ensuing three years, LBN referrals accounted for an average of 38% of his business. In real dollars, that amounts to six figures each year. Forming strategic and referral partner relationships with members of his own chapter and with those in other chapters helped Steve create a continuous referral stream and thus a continuous stream of new leads and new clients. Steve found the regional mixers particularly helpful in finding and developing referral partner relationships with those in the technology field.

Steve writes that, “LBN is the single most effective method we have used to promote our business. The structure of meeting twice a month and really focusing on sharing referrals makes it extremely effective.”

From Corporate Cast Off To Successful Business Owner In 1 Year

Mark Raymond was laid off abruptly from his information technology job when his company was bought out. The IT market was slow and Mark knew he needed to find additional sources of income. He knew it takes time to grow any business.

Mark had an entrepreneurial background. He had owned a number of different businesses before, ranging from working as a disc jockey, to being a truck driver, to operating as a multi-media expert with auto shows. Fortunately, he had built a successful real estate rental business and owned more than ten properties. Still he needed to replace his IT income.

Mark joined Pre-Paid Legal Services as an Independent Associate. He focused on the sales aspect instead of building a team, but needed prospects and referral partners. His target markets were companies and small business owners, but he did not know where to start.

His wife, Tricia Raymond, a real estate agent, already belonged to a Local Business Network and she encouraged him to use the networking to promote his business. Mark only knows one way to go – full speed ahead. He became the President of his LBN chapter and aggressively built referral relationships.

Within one year of joining LBN, he sold over 400 Pre-Paid Legal memberships. Nearly half, 180 memberships, came directly or indirectly from LBN. Today he has a rapidly growing nationwide network of business associates helping to grow his business.

Sales Agent for a Title Insurance Company Receives over 60% of Her Business Through Networking Group Referrals

Sandra Maurer enjoyed networking, but didn’t realize how powerful it could be when she joined the Birmingham, MI chapter of Local Business Network. Her sales were strongly dependent on relationships with mortgage lenders, attorneys and real estate agents.

Sandra began visiting as many LBN chapters as she could to meet key referral partners and build relationships. She attended every regional mixer to meet other members and build more relationships. She became an extraordinary referral generator, giving as many as 50 or more referrals every month.

Within two years, the relationships she had built within LBN were generating over 60% of her income. When she changed jobs, she took those relationships with her and had an immediate sales base even though she was selling different products and services.

Accountant Gives and Receives Over $100,000 in Referrals Annually

Norm McKee is an accountant and business consultant. During his first year in LBN, referrals from LBN members accounted for about 25% of his business. The second year it grew to 40%. Partnering with other LBN professionals, he also began an employee benefits firm with the potential to generate even more profit than his already highly lucrative accounting practice.

Norm receives eight to ten new client referrals a month from his referral partners. He receives over $100,000 in referrals annually and gives at least that amount to his referral partners.

Norm says, “We selected LBN as our networking group because of the structured/instructional based program offered, providing all members with basic direction over their networking activities. We found LBN members to understand the importance of relationship marketing and how to utilize relationships to create a marketing avenue for their businesses.

Residential Cleaning and Janitorial Service Reports 90% of Sales Come From LBN Members or Their Referrals

Mary Youtz was downsized by a major software development firm. She had worked in the accounting department in a thankless job for a thankless boss. After being let go, she and her husband started their own business and elected to use networking as their primary means of promoting it.

After six months, the firm was in the black and 90% of sales had come through members of her Local Business Network. Mary immediately recognized the value of visiting as many chapters as possible and became a regular visitor to half-a-dozen chapters in communities near her place of business. She attended every regional networking event and built relationships with those in a position to send her referrals. She brought referrals to every meeting she attended.

Mary also grew personally. She had never been required to speak in public and initially expressed concerns about having to do a sixty second commercial at her local chapter meeting. She quickly outgrew her fear and even became a speaker at regional networking events. Her friends saw an extraordinary transformation in her self-confidence and demeanor. She recently took on a role as an officer in her local chapter.

And there are hundreds of additional stories but we don’t have time to tell them all. Here are some quick recaps of a few more.

o Jim Motley started a new computer repair business with $250,000 in sales his first year largely through referrals; doubled his business the second year; then doubled it again the third year.

o Jeannie Kime, a marketer of promotional items spent two years in another networking organization before joining LBN without much success, then tripled her business in her first year in LBN.

o John Gentilia of Perfect View Blinds reported 35% of his business from LBN referrals his first year, growing to 40% his second year.

o Doris Benson of Comfort Zone Heating and Cooling developed 100 new customers in her first six months in LBN.

o Ed Koerner, a mortgage lender, got 36 referrals in his first six months in LBN.

o Brian Jenks, a commercial lender, received referrals for real estate financing for projects of $12 million and $5 million.

o Sharon Quarters, a Realtor, received leads totaling over $2 million in her first three weeks in LBN.

o Attorney, Brian Rolfe got a lead for a $50,000 client within a few weeks after joining LBN.

o Julie Greene, a financial planner, reported commissions of $20,000 on leads from her LBN group and expectations that that number would double the next year.

We could go on forever with stories of these types, but the important thing to understand is that the principles of power networking work for any legitimate business person, representing a valid product or service that is being marketed to the general public or to other businesses. The question is not whether the system works, but rather whether you are willing to learn and to apply the principles of power networking.

What is Power Networking? Webster’s Dictionary defines networking as, “the developing of contacts or the exchanging of information in an informal network as to further a career.” In its broadest sense, practically any type of social interaction could be considered networking. Most business people are familiar with the informal networking that occurs in Chambers of Commerce and other business organizations. But in a business environment where increased sales are the ultimate objective and “time is money”, informal and unfocused networking is inadequate. It is necessary to move to the description and definition of a more formal and focused type of networking.

Development of Win-win Relationships – In his book, Endless Referrals, Bob Burg defines networking as, “the development of mutually beneficial win-win relationships.” Bob says that, “all things being equal, people will do business with and refer people to those they know, like and trust.” Networking therefore is about developing relationships with others who will do business with you and will send referrals to you because they know, like and trust you. Bob’s goal is to transform networking from an “informal process” to a “formal” process focused on generating referrals that result in sales and increased income.

Note that there is a requirement that the individual giving you the referral first know, like and trust you. It is necessary for you to allow others to get to know you, and they must like what they see and have trust in you before they will send you referrals. When building a referral network it is necessary for you to develop relationships of trust.

Selling Through Networking Partners – Power networking involves selling “through” those who are your networking partners not “to” them. There are two components of the business you derive from networking as Mr. Burg describes it, business from those you know and business from those they know. The latter is far more critical than the former, because the potential represented is hundreds of times greater – assuming every business person knows literally hundreds of people. The ultimate objective of formalized networking is not to sell “to” those who know, like and trust you, but rather to sell “through” them to the hundreds of people they know.

Power networking is therefore selling to people you don’t know with the help and cooperation of those you do know. It is “collaborative marketing” predicated on the assumptions that:

1. With minimal proper training you and a partner can effectively prospect for each other, and that

2. It is easier for each of you to prospect for the other within your sphere of influence than it is for the other person to prospect with those same individuals.

This definition points out another critical aspect of formal business networking. You must train others to promote your business for you. Clearly, however, in order to train others to promote your business, you must first understand how to promote it yourself. Effective networkers must not only understand who their prospects are and how to promote to them, but must also be adept at teaching others how to identify prospects for their products or services and how to create the opportunity to make a presentation to those prospects.

Referral Partners – But why would this person, your friend who is generating referrals for you, want to work so hard to promote your business to others? What is in it for him or her? Obviously, he/she expects something in return and although that reward could take any form, the ideal form of remuneration is the referral of someone who could use his/her products or services. This reciprocity must exist in order for formal networking relationships to endure. And this concept of reciprocity leads us to yet another definition of focused business networking: it is the creation of personal wealth through the capture and exchange of referrals. If you want to receive referrals from others, you must be willing and able to give referrals in exchange for those you receive. If you do not give in return, the relationship will not endure and you will no longer receive referrals.

We refer to these special types of relationships where referrals are exchanged on a regular and ongoing basis as “referral partner relationships”. They are the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow, the mother lode! One such relationship can result in hundreds and even hundreds of thousands of dollars of referrals. The majority of your business networking efforts should be focused on finding and developing these relationships. Several such relationships can result in a flow of referrals sufficient to satisfy your needs for the lifetime of your business.

Strategic Partners – Closely allied to the “referral partner” concept is that of the “strategic partner”. A “strategic partner” is an individual who offers a product or service complementary to your own and who is willing to work together with you to offer your products together or to collaborate on marketing efforts. By collaborating with a “strategic partner”, you can broaden the range of products or services you are able to offer your clients, thereby increasing sales or broadening your customer base or, you can leverage marketing expense through joint marketing efforts, thereby reducing marketing costs or creating the opportunity for marketing efforts you might not otherwise be able to afford. Because they are dealing with the same or similar customers to your own, “strategic partners” can also be “referral partners”.

Traditional Networking versus Power Networking – Traditional networking, a style of networking where you market yourself by allowing others to get to know you and hoping that at some point in time they will either use your products or services or will refer someone else to you, is being replaced by what can be called “power networking”. Power networking is a style of networking where you market your business through the development of powerful, proactive partners who market your business for you in return for your help in promoting their businesses. Structured networking groups, both formal and informal organizations designed to teach referral based networking and to assist in the development of teams of referral partners, have sprung up to assist in this process. In this book, we will explore the nature of structured networking groups and their role in helping you apply the principles of power networking.

Myths and Truths about Networking

Myth #1: Networking is just belonging to a ‘Good Old Boys Club’ and is solely for the purpose of camaraderie and fellowship.

Truth: With proper training, networking can be focused to develop business relationships leading to significant referral business, rather than just meeting other people over a social lunch or at the bar during ‘happy-hour’.

Myth #2: Networking is a waste of productive time.

Truth: Networking with the purpose of developing referral partner relationships can be far more productive than spending time selling. One effective referral partner can result in hundreds or even thousands of sales over the lifetime of the relationship.

Myth #3: Networking is only for aggressive, loud-talking salespeople.

Truth: In networking, aggressive, me-oriented people seldom succeed. They find it difficult to build respect and trust which are the underpinnings of any referral partner relationship.

Myth #4: Networking brings people together who are struggling and have no real influence in the marketplace.

Truth: Networking attracts both successful and experienced business owners and professionals, as well as relatively less experienced individuals. The important point to remember is that everybody has a database of contacts with whom you have interest in connecting.

Myth #5: Networking takes too much time with little or no result.

Truth: Networking is a highly leveraged activity as you meet a number of professionals in a very short time. Those you meet are attuned to the development of referral partner relationships. As illustrated earlier, the results can be extraordinary.

Myth #6: Networking is expensive.

Truth: Networking is one of the least expensive forms of marketing available. Local Business Network (LBN) charges around $30 per month for members. Many members can recoup their expense for an entire year with one good referral. For some, the benefit to cost ratio runs in the hundreds.

Myth #7: Networking is primarily for small, non-professional businesses.

Truth: Networking can benefit all types of businesses. Experienced professionals like accountants and attorneys, technology firms, small retailers, home based businesses and others are a few examples.

Key points:

To summarize what we have learned in Chapter One:

1. Focused business networking involves the development of mutually beneficial win-win relationships called “referral partner relationships”.

2. These relationships are built on trust and involve collaborative marketing to those within each other’s sphere of influence.

3. To be effective, they require education and training on how to recognize prospects and generate referrals.

4. Referral partner relationships must be balanced and require both parties to consistently generate and exchange referrals.

5. Strategic partners are individuals who offer complementary products or services to customers similar to those you serve. Collaboration with them can broaden your product offerings, expand your markets, and create opportunities to leverage marketing expense.

6. Power networking refers to the marketing of your business through powerful proactive “referral” and “strategic” partner relationships.

7. Structured networking groups are designed to help you develop these partnering relationships.

Understanding Fundamental and Technical Analysis in Forex Trading

Understanding Fundamental and Technical Analysis in Forex Trading

To become a successful Forex trader you need to understand how to analyze the market. Market analysis in case of Forex Trading is usually done in two different ways. These are Fundamental Analysis and Technical Analysis. So what really is fundamental analysis and what is technical analysis? Let us understand what these terms mean and how can one use these techniques to trade in a better manner.

Fundamental Analysis: Fundamental analysis deals with analyzing the economic, social and political position of a nation as a whole to determine the value of its currency and to determine whether the currency’s value will rise in the near future or whether it will fall down. The main principle behind this is that if the economy of a nation is doing very well then its currency would also do well. Certainly the value of a currency of a nation which is having a growth rate of 10 % per year would be better than the value of a currency of a nation whose progress is very slow. Similarly the currency of a developed nation will have higher stability than that of a developing nation. Fundamental Analysis basically means that a good economy leads to higher currency value and a bad economy leads to a lower currency value.
Technical Analysis: Technical analysis deals with Forex Trading at the root or basic level. Technical analysis is the study of the price movement of a currency pair.By this we mean that in Technical analysis we analyze the price of a currency pair with respect to time and find out the change in the value of a currency pair over a certain interval in order to ascertain which is the best currency pair to invest in and at what time should the investment be made. One of the most important thing that one must learn or try to interpret is trend. A trend is a situation when the value of a pair is either falling or rising constantly. A trend can earn you money in forex trading. If you are able to find a trend and follow then you would surely gain from it. So it is important to find out trends and follow them to earn a profit.

From the above discussion we can conclude that Forex Trading has two aspects that need to be understood in order to gain an advantage over other investors as well as the market. Complete understanding of Fundamental and Technical analysis techniques can help you earn a continuing profit in the Forex Market.

Networking Basics

Networking Basics

A network is a group of computers, printers, and other devices that are connected together with cables. The sharing of data and resources. Information travels over the cables, allowing network users to exchange documents & data with each other, print to the same printers, and generally share any hardware or software that is connected to the network. Each computer, printer, or other peripheral device that is connected to the network is called a node. Networks can have tens, thousands, or even millions of nodes.

Cabling:

The two most popular types of network cabling are twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax (also known as 10Base2). 10BaseT cabling looks like ordinary telephone wire, except that it has 8 wires inside instead of 4. Thin coax looks like the copper coaxial cabling that’s often used to connect a VCR to a TV set.

Network Adapter:

A network computer is connected to the network cabling with a network interface card, (also called a “NIC”, “nick”, or network adapter). Some NICs are installed inside of a computer: the PC is opened up and a network card is plugged directly into one of the computer’s internal expansion slots. 286, 386, and many 486 computers have 16-bit slots, so a 16-bit NIC is needed. Faster computers, like high-speed 486s and Pentiums, , often have 32-bit, or PCI slots. These PCs require 32-bit NICs to achieve the fastest networking speeds possible for speed-critical applications like desktop video, multimedia, publishing, and databases. And if a computer is going to be used with a Fast Ethernet network, it will need a network adapter that supports 100Mbps data speeds as well.

Hubs

The last piece of the networking puzzle is called a hub. A hub is a box that is used to gather groups of PCs together at a central location with 10BaseT cabling. If you’re networking a small group of computers together, you may be able to get by with a hub, some 10BaseT cables, and a handful of network adapters. Larger networks often use a thin coax “backbone” that connects a row of 10BaseT hubs together. Each hub, in turn, may connect a handful of computer together using 10BaseT cabling, which allows you to build networks of tens, hundreds, or thousands of nodes.
Like network cards, hubs are available in both standard (10Mbps) and Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) versions.

LANs (Local Area Networks)

A network is any collection of independent computers that communicate with one another over a shared network medium. LANs are networks usually confined to a geographic area, such as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be small, linking as few as three computers, but often link hundreds of computers used by thousands of people. The development of standard networking protocols and media has resulted in worldwide proliferation of LANs throughout business and educational organizations.

WANs (Wide Area Networks)

Often a network is located in multiple physical places. Wide area networking combines multiple LANs that are geographically separate. This is accomplished by connecting the different LANs using services such as dedicated leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services. Wide area networking can be as simple as a modem and remote access server for employees to dial into, or it can be as complex as hundreds of branch offices globally linked using special routing protocols and filters to minimize the expense of sending data sent over vast distances.

Internet

The Internet is a system of linked networks that are worldwide in scope and facilitate data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, the World Wide Web and newsgroups.
With the meteoric rise in demand for connectivity, the Internet has become a communications highway for millions of users. The Internet was initially restricted to military and academic institutions, but now it is a full-fledged conduit for any and all forms of information and commerce. Internet websites now provide personal, educational, political and economic resources to every corner of the planet.

Intranet

With the advancements made in browser-based software for the Internet, many private organizations are implementing intranets. An intranet is a private network utilizing Internet-type tools, but available only within that organization. For large organizations, an intranet provides an easy access mode to corporate information for employees.

Ethernet

Ethernet is the most popular physical layer LAN technology in use today. Other LAN types include Token Ring, Fast Ethernet, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and LocalTalk. Ethernet is popular because it strikes a good balance between speed, cost and ease of installation. These benefits, combined with wide acceptance in the computer marketplace and the ability to support virtually all popular network protocols, make Ethernet an ideal networking technology for most computer users today. The Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) defines the Ethernet standard as IEEE Standard 802.3. This standard defines rules for configuring an Ethernet network as well as specifying how elements in an Ethernet network interact with one another. By adhering to the IEEE standard, network equipment and network protocols can communicate efficiently.

Protocols

Network protocols are standards that allow computers to communicate. A protocol defines how computers identify one another on a network, the form that the data should take in transit, and how this information is processed once it reaches its final destination. Protocols also define procedures for handling lost or damaged transmissions or “packets.” TCP/IP (for UNIX, Windows NT, Windows 95 and other platforms), IPX (for Novell NetWare), DECnet (for networking Digital Equipment Corp. computers), AppleTalk (for Macintosh computers), and NetBIOS/NetBEUI (for LAN Manager and Windows NT networks) are the main types of network protocols in use today.
Although each network protocol is different, they all share the same physical cabling. This common method of accessing the physical network allows multiple protocols to peacefully coexist over the network media, and allows the builder of a network to use common hardware for a variety of protocols. This concept is known as “protocol independence,” which means that devices that are compatible at the physical and data link layers allow the user to run many different protocols over the same medium.

Topologies

A network topology is the geometric arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN, and is used in two general configurations: bus and star. These two topologies define how nodes are connected to one another. A node is an active device connected to the network, such as a computer or a printer. A node can also be a piece of networking equipment such as a hub, switch or a router. A bus topology consists of nodes linked together in a series with each node connected to a long cable or bus. Many nodes can tap into the bus and begin communication with all other nodes on that cable segment. A break anywhere in the cable will usually cause the entire segment to be inoperable until the break is repaired. Examples of bus topology include 10BASE2 and 10BASE5.
10BASE-T Ethernet and Fast Ethernet use a star topology, in which access is controlled by a central computer. Generally a computer is located at one end of the segment, and the other end is terminated in central location with a hub. Because UTP is often run in conjunction with telephone cabling, this central location can be a telephone closet or other area where it is convenient to connect the UTP segment to a backbone. The primary advantage of this type of network is reliability, for if one of these ‘point-to-point’ segments has a break, it will only affect the two nodes on that link. Other computer users on the network continue to operate as if that segment were nonexistent.

Peer-to-Peer Networks

A peer-to-peer network allows two or more PCs to pool their resources together. Individual resources like disk drives, CD-ROM drives, and even printers are transformed into shared, collective resources that are accessible from every PC.

Unlike client-server networks, where network information is stored on a centralized file server PC and made available to tens, hundreds, or thousands client PCs, the information stored across peer-to-peer networks is uniquely decentralized. Because peer-to-peer PCs have their own hard disk drives that are accessible by all computers, each PC acts as both a client (information requestor) and a server (information provider). A peer-to-peer network can be built with either 10BaseT cabling and a hub or with a thin coax backbone. 10BaseT is best for small workgroups of 16 or fewer users that don’t span long distances, or for workgroups that have one or more portable computers that may be disconnected from the network from time to time.

After the networking hardware has been installed, a peer-to-peer network software package must be installed onto all of the PCs. Such a package allows information to be transferred back and forth between the PCs, hard disks, and other devices when users request it. Popular peer-to-peer NOS software includes
Most NOSs allow each peer-to-peer user to determine which resources will be available for use by other users. Specific hard & floppy disk drives, directories or files, printers, and other resources can be attached or detached from the network via software. When one user’s disk has been configured so that it is “sharable”, it will usually appear as a new drive to the other users. In other words, if user A has an A and C drive on his computer, and user B configures his entire C drive as sharable, user A will suddenly have an A, C, and D drive (user A’s D drive is actually user B’s C drive). Directories work in a similar fashion. If user A has an A & C drive, and user B configures his “C:WINDOWS” and “C:DOS” directories as sharable, user A may suddenly have an A, C, D, and E
drive (user A’s D is user B’s C:WINDOWS, and E is user B’s C:DOS). Did you get all of that?

Because drives can be easily shared between peer-to-peer PCs, applications only need to be installed on one computer–not two or three. If users have one copy of Microsoft Word, for example, it can be installed on user A’s computer–and still used by user B.

The advantages of peer-to-peer over client-server NOSs include:
· No need for a network administrator
· Network is fast/inexpensive to setup & maintain
· Each PC can make backup copies of its data to other PCs for security. By far the easiest type of network to build, peer-to-peer is perfect for both home and office use.

Client-Server Networks

In a client-server environment like Windows NT or Novell NetWare, files are stored on a centralized, high speed file server PC that is made available to client PCs. Network access speeds are usually faster than those found on peer-to-peer networks, which is reasonable given the vast numbers of clients that this architecture can support. Nearly all network services like printing and electronic mail are routed through the file server, which allows networking tasks to be tracked. Inefficient network segments can be reworked to make them faster, and users’ activities can be closely monitored. Public data and applications are stored on the file server, where they are run from client PCs’ locations, which makes upgrading software a simple task–network administrators can simply upgrade the applications stored on the file server, rather than having to physically upgrade each client PC.

In the client-server diagram below, the client PCs are shown to be separate and subordinate to the file server. The clients’ primary applications and files are stored in a common location. File servers are often set up so that each user on the network has access to his or her “own” directory, along with a range of “public” directories where applications are stored. If the two clients below want to communicate with each other, they must go through the file server to do it. A message from one client to another is first sent to the file server, where it is then routed to its destination. With tens or hundreds of client PCs, a file server is the only way to manage the often complex and simultaneous operations that large networks require.

Computer Networking is the very important and the crucial part of the Information Technology. Millions of the computers are networked together to form the Internet. Networking plays a important role in every kind of organization from small to medium sized, in Banks, Multinataional Companies, Stock Exchanges, Air Ports, Hospitals, Police Stations, Post Offices, Colleges, Universities, and even in home, in short networking plays an important role everywhere where computers are used. This article will be interesting for the students, network professionals and for the people who are interested in the computer networking

Trading Analysis of Stocks Successful Results Revealed

Trading Analysis of Stocks Successful Results Revealed

Trading Analysis of stocks employs different tools and models to give investors and traders the best edge. The 2 principal tools employed are Technical and Fundamental Analysis.

The market activities of the last decade provide a good look at the merits of Technical VS Fundamental Analysis.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average started the decade of year 2000 at 10, 937.74, saw a high of 14,198.10, crashed to a low of 6,469.95 on March 2, 2009, partially recovered from its low and ended the decade at 10,572.02.

Similarly, the S&P 500 Index started the decade at 1,394.46 saw a high of 1,576.09 and ended the decade at 1,136.52.

The NASDAQ Composite Index fared not better. It started the decade at 3,961.07, saw a high of 4,696.69 and ended the decade at 2,308.71.

What a ride! Many people who panicked and got out at the bottom suffered huge losses. They also lost double because inflation did not follow the pattern of the Dow; it increased.

Those whose Trading Analysis of stocks was based on Fundamental Analysis were hurt miserably. Investors who were buying and holding securities over that period saw their portfolios shrink.

Even worse were those who panicked and got out when the market bottomed in early 2009 thereby suffering and turning huge paper losses into actual loses before the market recovered partially from the bottom.

The rebound off the bottom is actually astounding – over 60% in many cases as of this writing.

For younger investors, as painful as this was, they have time on their side to play catch up. However, older investors, especially those nearing retirement saw their 401Ks and other retirement vehicles crash and badly damaged putting their retirement income in jeopardy.

Was there a way to sidestep this market collapse, especially in the final years of the decade? Yes there was! Doing a stock trends analysis or pattern analysis of stock prices and movement would have given a clue.

Proponents of Technical Analysis ride the Trend whether the Trend is going up or down and get in or get out at Support or Resistance.

Technicians following the trend would actually have made money going down and on the way back up.

It will be worthwhile to point out some of the main differences between Fundamental Analysis and Technical Analysis.

1. Fundamental Analysis focuses on:
A. Macro Economic Factors

Supply and Demand
Other Market Data

B. Company Specific data like

Valuations including Ratios of Price/Earnings(P/E), Price/Sales, Price/Book, PEG Ratio
Profitability: Gross Profit Margin, Operating Margin, Net Profit Margin
Growth Rates: EPS and Revenue
Financial Strength: Total Debt/Total Capital, Quick Ratio
Effectiveness: Return on Equity, Return On Assets, Return On Investment

2. Technical Analysis

Price action
Chart patterns
Volume, stochastic analysis and open interest
Human Psychology

Fundamental Analysis is very important and it predicts the long term direction of the stock. However, it has a serious flaw. It usually works with a lag. It is also difficult, even impossible perhaps, to tell when it will be driven by it’s fundamentals. The eminent Economist John Maynard Keynes put it best when he said that markets can remain irrational far longer than people can stay solvent.

Technical Analysis on the other hand offers an immediate clue as to the stock’s direction which is signaled by the behavior of the stock price. Technicians also believe that all the fundamentals of the stock are baked into the price anyway and just studying the price pattern will also justify the fundamentals.

Although there might be some credence to that, what is even more important is the fact that Technical Analysis has so many followers and users all of whom are observing the same Trends, Support and Resistance and they behave the same way based on the same observations.

In Trading Analysis of stocks, technical stock market analysis provides the rationale that makes Trends, Support and Resistance ultra important. They are self fulfilling particularly Support and Resistance Levels especially when they occur at nice round numbers.

This is because many traders do the same things at the same time resulting in a herd mentality thus confirming these Support and Resistance Levels. So if you can identify these points, you can benefit immensely.

Hence the reasons for big bounces off Support and Resistance. To get a step ahead, many professionals try to preempt some of these events.

Trading Analysis provides different but effective trading strategies depending on ones psychological make up.

To learn more about Trading Analysis, GO TO stock-trading-guru.com/technical-analysis.html [http://www.stock-trading-guru.com/technical-analysis.html] for more detailed information.

Winston has extensive knowledge and proficiency in the Financial Markets. He started trading in the Commodities Market since the mid 1990’s and has since become very active in the Stock Market.

Technical Analysis For the Advanced Options Trader

Technical Analysis For the Advanced Options Trader

Technical analysis often plays a large part in the determination to enter or exit stock trades in the short and intermediate term. It can also play a part in determining entry and exit of long option trades (buying calls or puts). What about using technical analysis in determining entries and exits of more complex options strategies such as vertical spreads, calendar spreads, iron condors and diagonal spreads? In this article, I want to specifically address the use of technical analysis in advanced options trading.

The problem with technical analysis

Even the best market technicians can only tell you what is likely to happen. This isn’t the fault of technical analysis (TA for short) or in the practitioners of it. It is simply a fact that must be reckoned with. TA is much more like checking the direction of the wind than a predictor of which way it will blow tomorrow.

While TA may be able to tell you what is likely to occur or what is going on at the moment, it can’t tell you your probability of success in a trade. There has been some work to quantify the accuracy of different technical indicators, particularly in the area of chart patterns, but that still doesn’t help with the analysis of the trade itself.

One other danger of technical analysis is the temptation to pile on a bunch of indicators in the hope that it will somehow give us additional insight or edge in trading. I’m not saying the employment of stochastics, MACD, Bollinger bands and the like aren’t important but their use in the overall trading strategy must be understood.

Technical analysis must also be correlated to a timeframe to be effective. In other words, you must know the timeframe you are working in. Is it short term (days), very short term (intra-day), medium term (weeks) or long term (months). To be effective, you must understand the timeframes involved in the options trade and ensure that technical analysis is done for the same timeframes.

Don’t get me wrong, I’m not against using TA for advanced options trading. In fact I’m a firm believer and practitioner of it. However, it is important to realize the limitations as well the benefits and uses. In fact, let’s take a look at some of the benefits.

The benefits of technical analysis

Technical analysis can be used to time an entry or trigger an exit. I often use basic support and resistance levels to do just that. In fact, I believe the combination of TA to time an entry combined with probability analysis for choosing my position actually improves my overall success. Also, when I have a clear support or resistance level that can be used as an indicator that my initial analysis was wrong, I often exit a trade earlier keeping more of my money for another trade.

One other area of TA I find beneficial is in determining overall market outlook. Remembering that timeframe is important, I often use TA to determine what the medium term trend is. This can help me determine what kinds of trade strategies to best employ over the coming weeks.

I’m sure there are other very successful options traders who have found additional uses for TA. In fact, I’m sure there are as many ways to incorporate technical analysis as there are strategies to use them on. That’s what makes trading so interesting. In fact, networking with other successful traders can be an important factor in determining your own trading style.

Knowing how and when to use technical analysis

Ultimately, the determination of how and when to use technical analysis is up to the trader and the trading plan(s) they are using. Understanding the limitations as well as the benefits of technical analysis is a great start. From there, experiment with different approaches using some form of paper trading until a clear strategy emerges.

It’s best to start with basic support and resistance analysis. Keep it simple. Use only the indicators that you are comfortable with and that help in making basic trading decisions. Ultimately though, you as a trader must make that decision to enter or exit the trade based on your evaluation of all the factors.

Putting it all together

In concluding this article, I wanted to provide 4 key tips in using technical analysis for advanced options trading.

Determine what technical analysis tools will be used. It’s easy to be distracted by all the indicators that exist. Paper trade and experiment but start simple. Support and resistance should be your first and primary indicators. Everything else should simply be confirming indicators. Don’t have so many indicators that they drive you to indecision.
Determine timeframes you will use for your technical analysis. Make sure the TA tools used are consistent with the timeframe you are trading. Most advanced options strategies last weeks to months. Make sure the timeframe analyzed is the same.
Put your strategy for technical analysis in your trading plan. Once you decide how and when to use TA, make sure that it becomes part of your trading plan for each strategy employed by writing it in. Having a written trading plan you can look at frequently is a great help to being consistent with that strategy and consistently using TA according to your plan.
Stay flexible. Remember TA isn’t an exact science but more of an art. As you practice, you’ll get better. Remember also that the outlook at one point in time can change in a matter of days. Be prepared to change your outlook if the technical indicators warrant it. However, don’t let small changes drive you to flip-flop in your trades. Continue to take trades for sound reasons and exit for sound reasons.

There is a lot of great information on technical analysis out there. I’ve summarized some of the basic techniques on the TA page of my website at http://www.success-with-options.com/technical-analysis.html. In addition covering how I use TA in my trading there, I’ve included references to some great sites. Be sure to check it out.

Remember to investigate, plan, experiment (with paper trading) and implement technical analysis into your options trading strategies. It can seem like a slow process of getting there but the confidence and consistency you achieve in your trading will be well worth it.

Data Mining and Financial Data Analysis

Data Mining and Financial Data Analysis

Introduction:

Most marketers understand the value of collecting financial data, but also realize the challenges of leveraging this knowledge to create intelligent, proactive pathways back to the customer. Data mining – technologies and techniques for recognizing and tracking patterns within data – helps businesses sift through layers of seemingly unrelated data for meaningful relationships, where they can anticipate, rather than simply react to, customer needs as well as financial need. In this accessible introduction, we provides a business and technological overview of data mining and outlines how, along with sound business processes and complementary technologies, data mining can reinforce and redefine for financial analysis.

Objective:

1. The main objective of mining techniques is to discuss how customized data mining tools should be developed for financial data analysis.

2. Usage pattern, in terms of the purpose can be categories as per the need for financial analysis.

3. Develop a tool for financial analysis through data mining techniques.

Data mining:

Data mining is the procedure for extracting or mining knowledge for the large quantity of data or we can say data mining is “knowledge mining for data” or also we can say Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD). Means data mining is : data collection , database creation, data management, data analysis and understanding.

There are some steps in the process of knowledge discovery in database, such as

1. Data cleaning. (To remove nose and inconsistent data)

2. Data integration. (Where multiple data source may be combined.)

3. Data selection. (Where data relevant to the analysis task are retrieved from the database.)

4. Data transformation. (Where data are transformed or consolidated into forms appropriate for mining by performing summary or aggregation operations, for instance)

5. Data mining. (An essential process where intelligent methods are applied in order to extract data patterns.)

6. Pattern evaluation. (To identify the truly interesting patterns representing knowledge based on some interesting measures.)

7. Knowledge presentation.(Where visualization and knowledge representation techniques are used to present the mined knowledge to the user.)

Data Warehouse:

A data warehouse is a repository of information collected from multiple sources, stored under a unified schema and which usually resides at a single site.

Text:

Most of the banks and financial institutions offer a wide verity of banking services such as checking, savings, business and individual customer transactions, credit and investment services like mutual funds etc. Some also offer insurance services and stock investment services.

There are different types of analysis available, but in this case we want to give one analysis known as “Evolution Analysis”.

Data evolution analysis is used for the object whose behavior changes over time. Although this may include characterization, discrimination, association, classification, or clustering of time related data, means we can say this evolution analysis is done through the time series data analysis, sequence or periodicity pattern matching and similarity based data analysis.

Data collect from banking and financial sectors are often relatively complete, reliable and high quality, which gives the facility for analysis and data mining. Here we discuss few cases such as,

Eg, 1. Suppose we have stock market data of the last few years available. And we would like to invest in shares of best companies. A data mining study of stock exchange data may identify stock evolution regularities for overall stocks and for the stocks of particular companies. Such regularities may help predict future trends in stock market prices, contributing our decision making regarding stock investments.

Eg, 2. One may like to view the debt and revenue change by month, by region and by other factors along with minimum, maximum, total, average, and other statistical information. Data ware houses, give the facility for comparative analysis and outlier analysis all are play important roles in financial data analysis and mining.

Eg, 3. Loan payment prediction and customer credit analysis are critical to the business of the bank. There are many factors can strongly influence loan payment performance and customer credit rating. Data mining may help identify important factors and eliminate irrelevant one.

Factors related to the risk of loan payments like term of the loan, debt ratio, payment to income ratio, credit history and many more. The banks than decide whose profile shows relatively low risks according to the critical factor analysis.

We can perform the task faster and create a more sophisticated presentation with financial analysis software. These products condense complex data analyses into easy-to-understand graphic presentations. And there’s a bonus: Such software can vault our practice to a more advanced business consulting level and help we attract new clients.

To help us find a program that best fits our needs-and our budget-we examined some of the leading packages that represent, by vendors’ estimates, more than 90% of the market. Although all the packages are marketed as financial analysis software, they don’t all perform every function needed for full-spectrum analyses. It should allow us to provide a unique service to clients.

The Products:

ACCPAC CFO (Comprehensive Financial Optimizer) is designed for small and medium-size enterprises and can help make business-planning decisions by modeling the impact of various options. This is accomplished by demonstrating the what-if outcomes of small changes. A roll forward feature prepares budgets or forecast reports in minutes. The program also generates a financial scorecard of key financial information and indicators.

Customized Financial Analysis by BizBench provides financial benchmarking to determine how a company compares to others in its industry by using the Risk Management Association (RMA) database. It also highlights key ratios that need improvement and year-to-year trend analysis. A unique function, Back Calculation, calculates the profit targets or the appropriate asset base to support existing sales and profitability. Its DuPont Model Analysis demonstrates how each ratio affects return on equity.

Financial Analysis CS reviews and compares a client’s financial position with business peers or industry standards. It also can compare multiple locations of a single business to determine which are most profitable. Users who subscribe to the RMA option can integrate with Financial Analysis CS, which then lets them provide aggregated financial indicators of peers or industry standards, showing clients how their businesses compare.

iLumen regularly collects a client’s financial information to provide ongoing analysis. It also provides benchmarking information, comparing the client’s financial performance with industry peers. The system is Web-based and can monitor a client’s performance on a monthly, quarterly and annual basis. The network can upload a trial balance file directly from any accounting software program and provide charts, graphs and ratios that demonstrate a company’s performance for the period. Analysis tools are viewed through customized dashboards.

PlanGuru by New Horizon Technologies can generate client-ready integrated balance sheets, income statements and cash-flow statements. The program includes tools for analyzing data, making projections, forecasting and budgeting. It also supports multiple resulting scenarios. The system can calculate up to 21 financial ratios as well as the breakeven point. PlanGuru uses a spreadsheet-style interface and wizards that guide users through data entry. It can import from Excel, QuickBooks, Peachtree and plain text files. It comes in professional and consultant editions. An add-on, called the Business Analyzer, calculates benchmarks.

ProfitCents by Sageworks is Web-based, so it requires no software or updates. It integrates with QuickBooks, CCH, Caseware, Creative Solutions and Best Software applications. It also provides a wide variety of businesses analyses for nonprofits and sole proprietorships. The company offers free consulting, training and customer support. It’s also available in Spanish.

ProfitSystem fx Profit Driver by CCH Tax and Accounting provides a wide range of financial diagnostics and analytics. It provides data in spreadsheet form and can calculate benchmarking against industry standards. The program can track up to 40 periods.

Finding an Accounting App to Suit Your Business

Finding an Accounting App to Suit Your Business

Cloud computing is the product of innovation in technology that has changed the working environment altogether. Gone are the days when one has to be physically present in the workplace. The application should have adapted to times and be providing this feature – otherwise, the advantages associated with it like collaboration with other co-workers, security and disaster recovery, among others cannot be reaped. This makes online accounting possible.

The app should be mobile friendly as well as operable in multiple operating systems. A business cannot be expected to be run in a single platform. Rather, with cloud computing, various devices can be used for administration purposes as well as for other purposes. Therefore, cross-platform compatibility is a must. The interface should be conducive for the operation of the application. This includes easy to use home page, a search bar and tabbed interface. In addition, customizable feature should be present so that the business can include its own theme in invoices.

Security of data generated on the course of business should be guaranteed by the application. Business should not be worried about the vulnerability of data – from natural calamities or cyber-crimes. Integration especially with banking system is a desirable feature because this way the transactions of business to the vendors and from the customers becomes quicker. Also, payment of the amount that has been calculated from the transaction can be made with a few clicks and the accuracy can be ascertained.

Acceptance of checks, credit cards, debit cards and PayPal as well as direct deposits from the customers will result in them being happy – the ultimate target of any business. This is another feature which is a must because every mode of payment feasible should be incorporated. Reports that are generated should be exportable in PDF format so that printing is made easy. The reports should also be able to be generated on demand of the business.help menu and manual should be provided to the businesses so that normal problems can be solved by going through those menu and manual.

Continuous improvements and updates should be another feature so that latest threats are addressed as well as ensuring its compatibility matched with the latest available hardware. Pricing of the application should be charged on the basis of the features that have been used – the number of transactions, depending on the turnover of inventory, or the number of employees, payroll calculation purposes, as the maximum limit for example. This will make it affordable to small businesses.

Free trial assists in deciding whether the app meets the demand of the business. While some may need it for lotto inventory, other may need fuel inventory to be tracked. The user should be allowed to familiarize oneself before making sure whether or not to stick with it in the long-run.

Cash for Your Annuity Payments

Cash for Your Annuity Payments

Getting the cash to pay for your son’s college, or to pay for your new house is something you can’t simply ignore. While you can apply for a loan, often times the interest may not be very favorable for you and you end up paying more than the amount you borrowed. However, if you are a recipient of an annuity payment, selling a part or the whole of the payments may be enough to answer for your immediate financial needs. In fact, most annuity recipients sell annuity for this reason.

While it is true that you can find several annuity buyers that are interested in buying your annuity payments for lump sum of cash, not all will be willing to pay most cash for your annuities. So it is best that you carefully choose to whom you’ll sell your annuity. There a few steps you need to follow to sell annuity for most cash.

Do Research

The first step you need to do is to make at least a short research about your annuity payments. Does the agreement you signed allows you to sell annuity payments or transfer your rights to a third party? Does it require court order so you can sell your annuity? How much does your annuity cost? It is best that you also consult your lawyer, or your financial adviser when deciding whether it is favorable for you to sell your annuity or not.

Ask for Quotes

To help you find the best annuity payments buyer (the one who is willing to pay most cash for your payments) you need to have an idea how much will they pay for your annuity by asking for their quotes. You can either personally visit them at their office, or call their business line, or you can visit their online website. Either ways, you can secure the quotes you need to better decide on the matter.

Analyze

Choosing the highest bid does not end the process. You also need to verify if they will be charging you with other fees in connection with the sale of your annuity. Some annuity buyers would usually offer huge amount of cash for it only to find out that they have to deduct from that amount the fees needed for the processing of the sale of your annuity. Compare the fees and the amount these annuity buyers offer you. Consulting your lawyer or financial adviser will be very helpful in this stage. Once you have cleared and compared everything only then you’ll finally sell annuity payments.

How Do Annuities Work

How Do Annuities Work

The term “annuity” basically refers to an arrangement that is made between two parties. One of these parties is generally an individual, who gives a sum of money, called the premium, in periodic payments or a lump sum, to the second party, which is often an insurance company. In return, the second party gives a steady stream of payment to the first party over a specified period of time that is stated in the arrangement.

Annuities consist of long term products and are a very straight forward approach to funding your future. However, before purchasing, it’s important for you to have a good understanding of what you’re buying.

There are two major kinds of annuity agreements. The first, called annuity certain, specifies the certain period for payment. For example, suppose you pay a certain amount of money to an insurance company for a twenty year annuity. You make an agreement whereby monthly payments are sent out along with a percentage growth, over the period of annuity. You will be a paid a specified amount of money, every month, till the arrangement comes to end.

The second type, called the life annuity, is most commonly employed by people who have retirement savings in mind. In this agreement, you pay a lump sum to the insurance company and they pay the money back to you at a specified amount every year for the rest of your life. Life annuities, when done in conjunction with a charity or a nonprofit organization, can offer extra tax benefits.

Among the many things you need to know about investing in an annuity is that it has mainly two types of balances that are running simultaneously. The first balance is your account value, also known as the contract value. This refers to the amount of money available to you at any given instance of time. It depends largely on the performance of the investments within the annuity that are also known as sub accounts.

The second one is the benefit base or the income base which is considered more as a hypothetical account. It is used to represent the amount of money that determines the annual guaranteed income one can draw from the annuity.

It is important to be aware of the differences between these two as sometimes you will come across variable annuities surrounding a guaranteed return that apply only to the income base and not to the actual account value. Income value is not the amount you can cash out. The only balance that you can withdraw when needed is your account value which may or may not be higher than your income base.

From time to time the insurance company will compare your account value with the income base. This, in most cases, is done on the anniversary date of the contract. If your account value turns out to be greater than your income base, then the insurance company will increase the benefit base such that it will be equal to the account value.